A fairly large part of neoplasms on the human skin is caused by the activity of the human papillomavirus (HPV). At the same time, papillomas are one of the most common of them. The virus not only caused the appearance of this neoplasm, but also gave it a name. But today, not all patients know what papilloma is. If you are one of these people or just want to know more about this neoplasm, this article is for you. There we will talk about papillomas: what they are, what symptoms they have, what causes them and how to treat them.
Papillomas: what is it?
Papillomas are small neoplasms that either have the same color as healthy skin or are slightly different from it. Neoplasms can be seen in single or multiple rashes. Depending on the species, they can be flat, pedunculated, elongated papillae. These neoplasms can be located almost anywhere: genitals, face, neck, armpits, limbs, etc.
It should also be noted that papillomas are benign neoplasms. That is, they do not belong to oncological tumors. However, doctors do not recommend leaving them as they are.
Usually papillomas do not hurt, but in some cases they itch, peel, cause mild tingling and / or redness. If the papilloma is located in the intimate area, it can cause discomfort when moving.
Types of papilloma
The five most common types of papilloma are:
- Simple. It looks like either a rooster's comb or a cauliflower.
- rightSuch a neoplasm is a flat nodule located on the surface of the skin. It can also occur in the cervix.
- Filiform. They are most often located on thin skin and are elongated nodules. It usually occurs in people over 50 years of age.
- He pointed. Or warts. It is sexually transmitted and therefore most commonly occurs in the genital area. They can appear one at a time or several times. In this case, they can merge into a large papilloma. They also differ in that they can grow not only on the surface of the genitals, but also inside the urethra or cervix.
Why papilloma appears
As we wrote above, the main reason for the appearance of papillomas is the activity of the human papillomavirus. It should be noted that according to the WHO, four out of five people (or more) are infected with the papillomavirus today. This is due to several reasons:
- The virus is very persistent. Once infected, it is almost impossible to get rid of it.
- The virus is easily transmitted. Sometimes even a single use of a toilet seat or towel is enough to become infected. And the probability of infection in unprotected sex is almost one hundred percent.
- The virus is congenital. Very often, the virus is transmitted from mother to newborn baby, so many people are born with already acquired papillomavirus.
In general, although our immunity does not destroy the virus, it can suppress it well. Therefore, neoplasms are not seen in all infected people. However, if the immune system is weakened, papilloma (or another neoplasm caused by HPV) may appear. There are other factors that contribute to the formation of papilloma:
- Stress and emotional stress.
- Old age.
- Alcohol abuse, smoking.
- Excessive physical activity.
- Lack of vitamins in the body.
- some other diseases. For example, endocrine diseases.
- Taking certain medications (oral contraceptives, immunosuppressants).
- Promiscuous sex life.
After the virus enters the body, external manifestations of papillomas are not immediately visible. What does it depend on? From the state of immunity and the duration of the incubation period (from several weeks to several years). Therefore, with good immune protection, the first manifestations can appear even after a year. In this case, a person can be infected with several strains of HPV at once (there are about 170 of them).
Of course, not everyone knows what papillomas are and how to treat them. Some even believe that these neoplasms should be treated because they are benign. Doctors have a different opinion on this matter: it is necessary to treat papillomas, and it is desirable not to postpone the treatment. But why should this benign neoplasm be treated? First, the papilloma can turn into a malignant neoplasm. Especially under the influence of certain factors. For example, due to intense ultraviolet radiation, injury, inflammation. Secondly, the neoplasm negatively affects the female reproductive function. If the woman is not cured and becomes pregnant, then there is a high possibility that the virus will pass to the newborn baby. Third, a papilloma located in the throat or trachea can make breathing difficult or even suffocating. Fourth, as already mentioned, the papillomavirus is quite easily transmitted, and therefore an untreated neoplasm can be very contagious. Fifth, neoplasms can cause aesthetic discomfort.
Types of papilloma treatment
It should be noted right away that you cannot resort to self-treatment. Only a specialist with medical education knows exactly how to diagnose papillomas, what they are and how to treat them. At the same time, it should be remembered that when removing any neoplasm, it is recommended to send the cut tissue for histological examination.
Speaking of treatment, today you can choose several ways to eliminate the neoplasm.
- Surgical removal. The operation is performed under local anesthesia. The neoplasm is removed with a scalpel along with the adjacent healthy tissue. Therefore, the healing process can take a long time. In addition, there is a high probability of scarring at the incision site. For these reasons, this procedure is now performed quite rarely. Mainly in cases where other methods have failed or the neoplasm is very large.
- Cryodestruction. This is the name of the procedure for exposing tissues to ultra-low temperatures. Most often, the procedure is carried out using liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -196 ° C. As a result, the water in the cells at the site of exposure freezes and neoplasms die. Disadvantages include low efficiency (about 60%), because with insufficient freezing, the neoplasm will not be sufficiently damaged. And too much - healthy tissue will be damaged.
- Electrocoagulation. This is the name of the procedure for burning neoplasm tissues with electric current. Of the negative aspects, they name the pain of the procedure and the possibility of skin injury at the site of exposure. But the efficiency is quite high: about 95%.
- Laser removal of neoplasm. The essence of the procedure is the effect of the laser beam on the tissue. As a result, the neoplasm evaporates in layers. Adjustable power allows to remove papilloma with almost 100% efficiency. And high accuracy allows you to exclude damage to healthy tissues. Today, laser removal is considered by many experts to be one of the most effective ways to remove papillomas. After the procedure, practically no scars remain, a long recovery period is not required, and the procedure is quite comfortable for the patient, since the anesthetic is applied before the session.
Laser removal of papillomas in the clinic is performed using modern devices. No preparation is required for laser removal. But you need to make an appointment with a laser therapist. During the appointment, the doctor will tell you what the papillomas are and how the session will go. The patient will also be screened for contraindications.
The procedure itself happens quite quickly: a few minutes are enough for single neoplasms, 15-20 for several. After the procedure, the specialist will inform you about proper care. According to general guidelines, it is impossible to sunbathe, go to the bath and sauna in the first two weeks. You should also take care of the treated area.
Do not forget the contraindications of the procedure. Laser removal of papillomas is not performed in the presence of any disease, lesions of the central nervous system and bleeding.